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Sheldon W.
Democrat RI

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  • Climate Change

    by Senator Sheldon Whitehouse

    Posted on 2015-02-02

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    WHITEHOUSE. Mr. President, I am here now for the 88th time to urge this body to wake up to the looming threat of climate change.



    In the last few weeks, my Republican colleagues have talked about climate change here on the floor more than at any other time since I began giving these weekly speeches. We had heard next to nothing from Republicans about climate change since the 2010 Citizens United decision. That decision let loose the fossil fuel industry to cast an ever darker shadow of intimidation across this town. So this minor outbreak of dialogue, although minor, has been significant.

    All but one of my Republican colleagues is now on the record saying they agree that climate change is real, and 15 voted that it is caused at least in some part by humans. That is some progress. Yet some still persist in their denial. Our scientists now tell us that warming of the climate system is ``unequivocal.'' Yet we equivocate. Scientists are a careful bunch. When they say something is unequivocal, we ought to take note.

    The senior Senator from Oklahoma, our chairman of the Environmental and Public Works Committee, however, maintains that human-caused climate change is a hoax. He thinks it is arrogant to say that humans could cause the climate to change. What is really arrogant is thinking we can ignore the laws of nature, the laws of physics, the laws of chemistry, the laws of biology. Whose laws do we think those are? Those laws were given to us by our Creator. They came with this world. They are immutable.

    These laws of nature dictate that carbon dioxide is the byproduct of our burning of fossil fuels. These laws of nature, fresh from the hands of our Creator, explain why carbon traps heat in our atmosphere-- something we have known since Abraham Lincoln was riding around this town in his top hat.

    Here in the Senate, we have no human power to amend or repeal those laws--and here in the Senate, we shouldn't cherry-pick from the scientific record. That is not fair play. Here on the floor, the EPW chairman paraphrased a 2013 paper from the journal Nature, saying: [[Page S683]] . . . there is considerable uncertainty as to whether [increases in extreme climate variability] is occurring.

    The author of the paper, Dr. Chris Huntingford of the UK's National Environmental Research Council, took exception to his paper being mischaracterized. He said this: Our Nature paper strictly analyzes only year-to-year variability (fluctuations) in temperature. . . . We do not at any point offer evidence against a general on-going background and upwards warming trend. Detection and attribution statistical studies show that the observed average increasing temperatures are almost certainly a consequence of the burning of fossil fuels.

    In that same floor speech, my colleague from Oklahoma suggested we could relax about climate change because the Munich Reinsurance Company said weather-related disaster losses have declined as a proportion of GDP worldwide. He neglected to mention testimony before our EPW Committee last July by Munich Re's head of risk accumulation in the United States, Carl Hedde, to wit: Due to our history of insuring natural catastrophe, Munich Re was one of the first companies in the industry to recognize the impact that weather-related events and a changing climate could have on its business model and customers. As a nation, we need to take steps to reduce the societal impact of weather events as we see greater variability and volatility in our climate.

    The senior Senator from Oklahoma has even resurrected the ghost of Climategate, that faux scandal whipped up a few years ago by the polluters and their allies to suggest climate scientists were colluding to exaggerate global warming data. Turned out it was the cooked-up, phony scandal that was exaggerated and not the data. So-called ClimateGate should actually be accurately called ClimateGate-Gate. Yet years later this zombie falsehood still staggers about the floor of the Senate attempting to cast doubt on human-caused climate change. The polluters have relentlessly made it their business to misconstrue the findings of scientific works and to cling to discredited accusations.

    We would do well to listen to the overwhelming majority of practicing, publishing climate scientists who agree our carbon pollution is altering the climate. Scientists who conduct experiments, who examine data, who arrive at conclusions, who submit their work through peer review, and who make their data accessible for due diligence by other researchers. It is the best science out there.

    But I am afraid those scientists don't have the ear of the senior Senator from Oklahoma. He showed us whom he listens to. He brought a chart to the floor showing several dozen ``recognized'' scientists--as he called them--who don't buy the climate consensus. That chart was produced by an outfit called the Heartland Institute. You may remember them for associating climate scientists with the Unabomber--a classy group.

    Their scientists, so-called, included bloggers, columnists, staff of conservative think tanks, a member of the European Parliament, and many scientists who have been funded by the fossil fuel industry.

    I will side with the scientists affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science over a bunch of carefully selected bloggers. I will trust NASA and NOAA over scientists who shill for the fossil fuel industry. The Heartland Institute is not alone. It is part of a sophisticated network of climate denial propped up by the carbon-polluting fossil fuel industry. It is a front group fueled by the special interests and their dubious experts.

    Interestingly, if we go to Oklahoma State University, we will find one of the experts on this. Dr. Riley Dunlap at Oklahoma State could tell his Senator all about it. Professor Dunlap is one of the preeminent researchers into the deliberate and coordinated effort by corporate interests to spread denial propaganda and distort public opinion on climate change--what he calls the ``organized climate-denial machine.'' Dunlap and a colleague found that nearly 90 percent of climate denial books coming out of publishing houses between 1982 and 2010--guess what--had ties to conservative fossil fuel-funded think tanks such as the Heartland Institute. The whole thing is a rigged game and a phony, and there is a very good professor at Oklahoma State University who keeps track of it.

    I also have a fact sheet from the Oklahoma Climatological Survey, its statement on climate change and its implications for Oklahoma. Here is what it says in plain language: The Earth's climate has warmed during the last 100 years. The Earth's climate will continue to warm for the foreseeable future, and much of the global temperature increases over the last 50 years can be attributed to human activities, particularly increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. That is actually a noncontroversial statement among regular scientists.

    This is no radical with some political agenda. This is a fact sheet from a State scientific agency. It happens to be Oklahoma's. Here is what the agency expects this means for Oklahoma: earlier maturation of winter wheat and orchard crops, leaving them more vulnerable to late freeze events; drought frequency increases, especially during the summer; drier and warmer conditions increasing the risk of wildfires; rain-free periods lengthening with individual rainfall events becoming more intense, with more runoff and flash flooding occurring.

    Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have this statement printed in the Record.

    There being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the Record, as follows: [From the Oklahoma Climatological Survey] Statement on Climate Change and Its Implications for Oklahoma ``Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level.'' --the Fourth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

    That statement reflects the essence of a vast amount of observational data and climate research: the earth's climate has warmed on average during the last 100 years and will continue to warm through the 21st century. Further, ample evidence from observational data and climate modeling studies indicates that this global-scale warming is not attributable to natural variability. The Oklahoma Climatological Survey (OCS) has been mandated by the Oklahoma legislature to provide climate information and expertise which could be of value to the public, as well as to state policy- and decision-makers. In accordance with that directive, OCS has conducted a review of the current assessments of climate change research and concludes the following to be true: Across the globe, a warming climate will be beneficial to some and detrimental to others. Anticipating how this climatic shift will impact Oklahoma is of vital importance to state decision-makers. One of the greatest impacts will be the exposure of Oklahoma's growing population and economy to water stress. Oklahoma's future requires access to fresh water. Thus, due diligence in protecting our water resources and adapting to future climate variability is paramount if we are to maintain and improve the quality of life and the economy of Oklahoma.

    The Science of Global Climate Change The earth's climate is always changing. Evidence such as tree ring and ice core studies indicates large and sometimes abrupt climate changes have occurred in the earth's distant past, lasting centuries to millennia. These climate swings are attributed to natural variations, such as changes in the output of the sun or shifts in the earth's orbit. Oklahoma has exhibited distinct climate periods attributable to natural variability in the last 100 years, from the decadal- scale droughts of the 1920s, 1930s and 1950s to an extended period of abundant precipitation during the 1980s and 1990s. Mounting evidence continues to indicate, however, that human activities have begun to impact the earth's climate through the release of greenhouse gases. Ice core studies show carbon dioxide and methane are at their greatest levels within the last 650,000 years. Due to the extended periods required for these gases to be removed from the atmosphere, further emissions during the 21st century will cause additional warming for more than a millennium. In fact, even if greenhouse gas concentrations were held steady since the year 2000, the earth is committed to decades of warming from heat already absorbed by the oceans.

    Global Climate Change Impacts for Oklahoma The continued warming of the climate averaged across the globe will create a cascade of climatic shifts which could impact Oklahoma's climate. These shifts will not mean an end of year-to-year natural variability--hot years and cold years will continue, as will wet years and dry years. The projected changes will be seen at time scales averaged over a decade or more. Little is known of the effects climate change will have on severe weather. The ingredients required for severe weather involve complex [[Page S684]] combinations that do not exhibit clear changes in a warming climate. Further, global climate models are unable to accurately simulate small scale weather events like thunderstorms or tornadoes.

    Recommendations OCS recommends that Oklahoma aggressively pursue four initiatives to address the risks of both climate variability and climate change. First, the state should undertake a comprehensive assessment of Oklahoma's social and economic vulnerability to climate variability as well as climate change. Learning to adapt to nature's extremes now will yield benefits in reduced disaster losses, regardless of the future trajectory of climate change. Climate change may also bring economic opportunities that would be identified in such an assessment. Second, OCS recommends immediate funding of the Oklahoma Water Resources Board's Comprehensive Water Plan study to identify existing as well as projected needs for water. Third, OCS encourages efficiency programs to reduce our growing demand for energy. Fourth, OCS recommends investment in renewable energy technology and production. Oklahoma has already demonstrated the successes of wind energy; similar efforts should be undertaken to advance development of solar and sustainable bio-energy as well as fostering further research and development of wind energy.

    Even if climate does not evolve as expected, these steps will yield long-term benefits to Oklahoma's society and economy through reduced losses to existing climate and weather threats and cost-savings through reduced energy use. If climate does evolve as expected, Oklahoma will be better positioned to adapt to those changes without rapid social upheaval. Furthermore, building resilience to climate and weather events will help position Oklahoma at a relative advantage to neighboring states, especially in attracting businesses that are dependent upon a continuous water supply.

    This statement is the first in a series issued by OCS which delineates the impacts, both beneficial and detrimental, of a warming climate system on the economy of Oklahoma and the quality of life for Oklahomans. Further statements will illuminate possible impacts to specific industries, such as water management and agriculture.

    Mr. WHITEHOUSE. The National Climate Assessment estimates that by the end of the century the temperatures in the Southern Great Plains will increase up to 9 degrees. Mark Shafer is a researcher at the Oklahoma Climatological Survey who contributed to the National Climate Assessment. He told the Oklahoman newspaper that in a few decades Oklahoma could see 100-plus temperatures every summer. By century's end, daily temperatures could top 100 degrees for the entire summer. As the climate warms, droughts will probably get worse, both more severe and more frequent.

    Nine Oklahoma professors from Oral Roberts University, Southern Nazarene University, and the University of Tulsa were among 200 evangelical scientists and academics to sign a 2013 letter to Congress imploring us to address climate change.

    All of God's Creation . . . is groaning under the weight of our uncontrolled use of fossil fuels. . . . The threat to future generations and global prosperity means we can no longer afford complacency and endless debate. We as a society risk being counted among ``those who destroy the earth.'' Those who know the Bible will know that reference to ``those who destroy the earth'' comes from Revelations. I will quote from Revelations: ``And Thy wrath is come, and the time . . . that thou . . . shouldst destroy them which destroy the earth.'' The letter warns that the way we live harms our neighbors, threatening to create more empty wells, devastated cropland, loss of villages, environmental refugees, and disease.

    I ask unanimous consent to have that letter from the 200 evangelical scientists printed in the Record.

    There being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the Record, as follows: July 10, 2013.

    Dear Speaker Boehner, Senate Majority Leader Reid, and Members of the United States Congress: As evangelical scientists and academics, we understand climate change is real and action is urgently needed. All of God's Creation-- humans and our environment--is groaning under the weight of our uncontrolled use of fossil fuels, bringing on a warming planet, melting ice, and rising seas. The negative consequences and burdens of a changing climate will fall disproportionately on those whom Jesus called ``the least of these'': the poor, vulnerable, and oppressed. Our nation has entrusted you with political power; we plead with you to lead on this issue and enact policies this year that will protect our climate and help us all to be better stewards of Creation.

    Average global temperatures are at their highest level within the measurement record, and we are beginning to see indications of increasingly disturbed weather. For example, 2012 was the hottest year ever recorded for the contiguous United States, and it will go down as one of the most destructive and disruptive years in U.S. history: wildfires, drought, superstorms, and public health outbreaks. This past year is only one example of the patterns of change we expect to see as the climate warms globally. We're already spending billions in emergency aid for the victims of hurricanes and weather disasters, and these expenses will only increase as the ``once in a lifetime'' storms become the new normal.

    The Bible tells us that ``love does no harm to its neighbor'' (Romans 13:10), yet the way we live now harms our neighbors, both locally and globally. For the world's poorest people, climate change means dried-up wells in Africa, floods in Asia that wash away crops and homes, wildfires in the U.S. and Russia, loss of villages and food species in the Arctic, environmental refugees, and disease. Our changing climate threatens the health, security, and well-being of millions of people who are made in God's image. The threat to future generations and global prosperity means we can no longer afford complacency and endless debate. We as a society risk being counted among ``those who destroy the earth'' (Revelation 11:18).

    We call on you to pass meaningful legislation during this Congress to reduce carbon emissions and protect our environment, thereby strengthening the long-term outlook for our economy and our children. As Christian scientists and educators, we offer our knowledge, experience, and prayerful witness to assist you and all of our nation's leaders who are willing to address this urgent challenge.

    Sincerely, Dr. Tom Ackerman, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Dr. Carolyn Anderson, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Stanley Anderson, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California; Dr. Brian Aukema, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Prof. Michael Bailey Anderson, University, Anderson, Indiana; Dr. Jonathan Bakker, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Dr. Marvin Bauer, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Dr. Philip Bays, Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana; Dr. Caroline Bentley, Southern Nazarene University, Bethany, Oklahoma; Dr. Abram Bicksler, International Sustainable Development Studies Institute, Chiang Mai, Thailand; Prof. Russell Bjork, Gordon College, Wenham, Massachusetts; Dr. Curtis Blankespoor, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Harvey Blankespoor, Hope College, Holland, Michigan; Dr. Mark Bloom, Dallas Baptist University, Dallas, Texas; Dr. Robert Boomsma, Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, Illinois.

    Dr. Dorothy Boone, Gordon College, Wenham, Massachusetts; Prof. Michael Bosscher, Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, Illinois; Dr. Sheri Boyce, Messiah College, Grantham, Pennsylvania; Prof. Lynn Braband, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York; Dr. James Bradley, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Robert Bringolf, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; Dr. Joshua Brokaw, Abilene Christian University, Abilene, Texas; Dr. Jeff Brown, Hope College, Holland, Michigan; Dr. Douglas Bulthuis, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington; Dr. Russell Camp, Gordon College, Wenham, Massachusetts; Dr. David Campbell, Gardner-Webb University, Boiling Springs, North Carolina; Dr. Clayton Carlson, Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, Illinois; Dr. Chris Carmichael, Bob Jones University, Greenville, South Carolina; Dr. Walter Cho, Point Loma Nazarene University, San Diego, California; Dr. Hyun Joong Cho, University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, California.

    Dr. James Clark, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois; Dr. Stephen Cole, MidAmerica Nazarene University, Olathe, Kansas; Dr. Bruce Congdon, Seattle Pacific University, Seattle, Washington; Dr. John Cossel, Jr., Northwest Nazarene University, Nampa, Idaho; Dr. Lisa Crow, Southern Nazarene University, Bethany, Oklahoma; Dr. Thomas F. Cummings, Bradley University, Peoria, Illinois; Dr. Robert De Haan, Dordt College, Sioux Center, Iowa; Dr. William Deutsch, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Dr. Calvin DeWitt, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin; Prof. Jeffrey Divino, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut; Dr. David Dornbos Jr., Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Mike Dorrell, Point Loma Nazarene University, San Diego, California; Dr. Ruth Douglas Miller, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; Dr. Job Ebenezer, Technology for the Poor, Westerville, Ohio; Dr. Gary Emberger, Messiah College, Grantham, Pennsylvania.

    Dr. Darrel Falk, Point Loma Nazarene University, San Diego, California; Dr. Chris Farrell, Trevecca Nazarene University, Nashville, Tennessee; Dr. Leo Finkenbinder, Olivet Nazarene University, Bourbonnais, Illinois; Dr. Lloyd Fisher, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Dr. Vanessa Fitsanakis, King University, Bristol, Tennessee; Dr. Aaron Fletcher, Dallas Baptist University, Dallas, Texas; Dr. David K. Foster, Messiah College, Grantham, Pennsylvania; Dr. Michael Freake, Lee University, Cleveland, Tennessee; Dr. Laura Furlong, Northwestern College, Orange City, Iowa; Dr. Herb Fynewever, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Robert Gammon, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland; [[Page S685]] Dr. Jason Ganley, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado; Dr. Luke Gascho, Goshen College, Goshen, Indiana; Prof. Raymond Gates, Cornerstone University, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Mark Gathany, Cedarville University, Cedarville, Ohio.

    Dr. Dale Gentry, Northwestern College, St. Paul, Minnesota; Dr. Dwight Ginn, Olivet Nazarene University, Bourbonnais, Illinois; Dr. Micah Green, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas; Dr. Jeffrey Greenberg, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois; Dr. Brian T. Greuel, John Brown University, Siloam Springs, Arkansas; Dr. Roger Griffioen, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Jeff Griffitts, Southern Nazarene University, Bethany, Oklahoma; Dr. Herb Grover, Wayland Baptist University, Plainview, Texas; Dr. Terry Gustafson, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Dr. Loren Haarsma, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Steven Hall, Louisiana State University and LSU AgCenter, Baton Rouge, Louisiana; Dr. Rick Hammer, Hardin-Simmons University, Abilene, Texas; Dr. Wesley H. Hanson, Southern Nazarene University, Bethany, Oklahoma; Dr. David Hartnett, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; Prof. Elizabeth Hasenmyer, Taylor University, Upland, Indiana.

    Dr. Katharine Hayhoe, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas; Dr. Kevin Heaney, Ocean Acoustical Services and Instrumentation Systems, Lexington, Massachusetts; Dr. Matthew Heun, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Gregory Hitzhusen, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Dr. David Hoferer, Judson University, Elgin, Illinois; Dr. Thomas Hooyer, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Prof. Elizabeth Horvath, Westmont College, Santa Barbara, California; Dr. Michael Huster, Nyack College, Nyack, New York; Dr. Dan Ippolito, Anderson University, Anderson, Indiana; Dr. Randy Isaac, IBM, Armonk, New York; Dr. Forest Isbell, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Dr. Delano Janutolo, Anderson University, Anderson, Indiana; Dr. Randal Johnson, Olivet Nazarene University, Bourbonnais, Illinois; Dr. Carey Johnson, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas; Dr. Ian Johnston, Bethel University, St. Paul, Minnesota.

    Dr. Chris Keil, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois; Dr. Wayne Keith, McMurry University, Abilene, Texas; Dr. Robert Keys, Cornerstone University, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. John Korstad, Oral Roberts University, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Dr. Kirk Larsen, Luther College, Decorah, Iowa; Dr. Tom Lee, Abilene Christian University, Abilene, Texas; Dr. Curtis Lee, Dallas Baptist University, Dallas, Texas; Prof Irvin Levy, Gordon College, Wenham, Massachusetts; Dr. Raymond Lewis, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois; Dr. Erik Lindquist, Messiah College, Grantham, Pennsylvania; Dr. Richard Lindroth, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin; Dr. Greg Long, Olivet Nazarene University, Bourbonnais, Illinois; Dr. Eric Long, Seattle Pacific University, Seattle, Washington; Dr. Larry Louters, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. William Lynch, University of Evansville, Evansville, Indiana.

    Dr. Thomas Mangum, Northwest Nazarene University, Nampa, Idaho; Dr. Bryan Mark, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Dr. April Maskiewicz, Point Loma Nazarene University, San Diego, California; Dr. Jon Masso, Daystar University, Athi River, Kenya; Dr. Ann Mayo, Tarrant County College, Fort Worth, Texas; Dr. Michelle McCully, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California; Prof. Karen McReynolds, Hope International University, Fullerton, California; Dr. Clarence Menninga, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Wendy L. Mercier, Eastern University, St. Davids, Pennsylvania; Dr. Grace Ju Miller, Indiana Wesleyan University, Marion, Indiana; Dr. Keith Miller, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; Dr. Kristy Miller, University of Evansville, Evansville, Indiana; Dr. Mike Mooring, Point Loma Nazarene University, San Diego, California; Dr. Stephen Moshier, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois; Dr. Lytton Musselman, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Dr. Timothy Nelson, Seattle Pacific University, Seattle, Washington; Dr. Chris Newhouse, Spring Arbor University, Township, Michigan; Prof. Andrew Newhouse, SUNY College of Environmental Science & Forestry, Syracuse, New York; Dr. Karen Nordell Pearson, Hope College, Holland, Michigan; Dr. Jennifer Noseworthy, Gordon College, Wenham, Massachusetts; Dr. Han Chuan Ong, King University, Bristol, Tennessee; Dr. Laura Ong, King University, Bristol, Tennessee; Dr. Dawne Page, Point Loma Nazarene University, San Diego, California; Dr. Rafe Payne, Biola University, La Mirada, California; Dr. Wesley Pearson, St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minnesota; Dr. Kenneth Petersen, Bethel University, St. Paul, Minnesota; Dr. Kenneth Piers, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Jeffrey Ploegstra, Dordt College, Sioux Center, Iowa; Dr. Derek Posselt, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Dr. Marla Potess, Hardin-Simmons University, Abilene, Texas.

    Dr. Darren Proppe, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Kathleen Purvis-Roberts, Claremont McKenna, Pitzer, and Scripps Colleges, Claremont, California; Dr. Michael Pyle, Olivet Nazarene University, Bourbonnais, Illinois; Dr. Max Reams, Olivet Nazarene University, Bourbonnais, Illinois; Dr. Jan Reber, Taylor University, Upland, Indiana; Prof. Stanley Reczek, Gordon College, Wenham, Massachusetts; Dr. Hal Reed, Oral Roberts University, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Dr. Jeffrey Regier, Taylor University, Upland, Indiana; Dr. Timothy Richmond, Southwest Baptist University, Bolivar, Missouri; Dr. Jon Roberts, Cadmus Group, Arlington, Virginia; Dr. David Robinson, Utah State University, Logan, Utah; Dr. John Roe, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania; Dr. Thomas Roose, Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, Illinois; Dr. Paul Rothrock, Taylor University, Upland, Indiana; Dr. John Rowley, Houghton College, Houghton, New York.

    Dr. John Sanderson, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York; Dr. Jeffrey Schloss, Westmont College, Santa Barbara, California; Dr. Jonathon Schramm, Goshen College, Goshen, Indiana; Dr. Abbie Schrotenboer, Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, Illinois; Dr. John Schutt, James A. Rhodes State College, Lima, Ohio; Dr. Arthur Schwarz, Southwestern Adventist University, Keene, Texas; Dr. Ryan Sensenig, Goshen College, Goshen, Indiana; Dr. Andrew Sensenig, Tabor College, Hillsboro, Kansas; Dr. Daniel Sharda, Olivet Nazarene University, Bourbonnais, Illinois; Dr. Joseph Sheldon, Messiah College, Grantham, Pennsylvania; Dr. Walt Sinnamon, Southern Wesleyan University, Central, South Carolina; Dr. Kumar Sinniah, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. R. Darrell Smith, Global Environmental Relief, Conyers, Georgia; Dr. Ralph Stearley, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Eric Steinkamp, Northwest University, Kirkland, Washington.

    Dr. Craig Story, Gordon College, Wenham, Massachusetts; Dr. Darren Stoub, Dordt College, Sioux Center, Iowa; Dr. Aaron Sullivan, Houghton College, Houghton, New York; Dr. Michael Summers, George Mason University, George Mason University; Dr. Jack Swearengen, Washington State University, Vancouver, Vancouver, Washington; Dr. Sara Sybesma--Tolsma, Northwestern College, Orange City, Iowa; Dr. Lou Sytsma, Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, Illinois; Dr. Kenneth Sytsma, University of Wisconsin--Madison, Madison, Wisconsin; Dr. David Terrell, Warner Pacific College, Portland, Oregon; Dr. Perry Tompkins, Southwest Baptist University, Bolivar, Missouri; Dr. Todd Tracy, Northwestern College, Orange City, Iowa; Dr. Donna Tucker, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas; Dr. Daniel Tucker, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana; Prof. Jonathan Twining, Eastern Nazarene College, Quincy, Massachusetts; Dr. Dave Unander, Eastern University, St. Davids, Pennsylvania.

    Dr. Gerald van Belle, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Dr. Randall Van Dragt, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Fred Van Dyke, Au Sable Institute of Environmental Studies, Mancelona, Michigan; Dr. Douglas Vander Griend, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Steven VanderLeest, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Aggie Veld, Olivet Nazarene University, Bourbonnais, Illinois; Dr. Pamela Veltkamp, McMurry University, Abilene, Texas; Dr. Hans Verlinde, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania; Dr. David Vosburg, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, California; Dr. Peter Walhout, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois; Dr. David Warners; Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Matthew Waterman, Eastern Nazarene College, Quincy, Massachusetts; Dr. Leslie Wickman, Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, California; Dr. Douglas Wiens, Washington University in Saint Louis, St. Louis, Missouri; Dr. Alex Williams, York College of Nebraska, York, Nebraska; Dr. Mark Winslow, Southern Nazarene University, Bethany, Oklahoma; Dr. Ken Wolgemuth, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Dr. Richard Wright, Gordon College, Wenham, Massachusetts; Dr. Davis Young, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Dr. Sharon Young, Southern Nazarene University, Bethany, Oklahoma; Dr. Uko Zylstra, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

    Mr. WHITEHOUSE. Finally, Mr. President, at the University of Oklahoma Berrien Moore III is dean of the College of Atmosphere and Geographic Sciences. He is also Director of the National Weather Center. Dean Moore of the University of Oklahoma was a lead author on an intergovernmental panel on climate change report, which the Senator from Oklahoma is so fond of disparaging. Dr. Moore's work helped the IPCC earn the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007. He has won research accolades from NOAA and from NASA. In 2009 Dr. Moore testified before the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Here is what he had to say about climate change: On the increasing strength of Earth science, we now can state that global warming is ``unequivocal,''-- There is that word again-- but this simply sets the challenge. We need now-- This is 5 years ago, by the way-- to develop the capability to monitor and thereby manage greenhouse gas emissions through this century and beyond. . . . The challenge is growing and will not go away.

    The effects of climate change are all too real in Oklahoma, in Rhode Island, [[Page S686]] and across the Nation. If you don't believe me, go to Oklahoma State and the University of Oklahoma and talk to the scientists I just mentioned. The outlook for us if we fail to act is increasingly dark.

    But look again at Oklahoma. The Sooner State is the fourth largest producer of wind power in the country. Wind turbines there make progress toward energy independence and they give Oklahoma farmers steady income as a hedge against droughts and extreme weather. So people farm and they get paid for having a wind turbine located on your farm. It is a win-win. Gary McManus, the Oklahoma State climatologist, has given a number of presentations on climate change and its likely effects on his home State. He often prefaces those talks with this admonition: This is the science. It is up to you to decide what you do with it. You can either ignore it or you can use it.

    In my view, there will be a high price in harm and in infamy to this democracy if we continue to ignore it. So I say let's use it, but first we will have to wake up.

    Mr. President, I yield the floor.

    The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from Iowa.

    (The remarks of Mr. Grassley pertaining to the introduction of S. 335 are printed in today's Record under ``Statements on Introduced Bills and Joint Resolutions.'') Mr. GRASSLEY. I suggest the absence of a quorum.

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